Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and conducted by
the Center for Educational Leadership and Technology (CELT)

TOR Framework

Possible Approach


Many individuals may contribute to a student's progress during an academic year. The SEA and LEAs need to determine whether more than one individual can be designated as a Teacher of Record, for example with team-teaching. They should discuss whether only state-certified teachers can be the TOR. Should the TOR definition be broadened to also include the principal? Should individuals who facilitate virtual learning courses be included in the TSDL?
  • Teacher
  • Educator
  • Certified Teacher
  • Responsible Teacher
  • Primary Teacher
  • Individual

Specified Proportion

A teacher/educator may deliver from 1 to 100% of the total scheduled course time, academic standards, and/or learning activities. A specified proportion (or minimum threshold) should be required to designate an individual as a Teacher of Record for students in a subject/course. What should that proportion be? What variable(s) should be measured – time, standards, instructional content, learning activities, or other? What should the unit of measurement be – minutes/hours/days/ credits/number of standards or learning activities/other? How can the measure be monitored to ensure that the required specified proportion is met? Is it necessary to track both teacher and student attendance to determine if the threshold is met if the measure is classroom instruction time? How does this proportion change if multiple teachers are tracked as the TOR for a particular student?
  • 150 days of classroom instruction
  • 75 days of classroom instruction per semester
  • xx % of instructional time for the course
  • xx % of academic standards for the course

Learning Activities

The SEA and LEAs should agree on the types of data about learning activities that should be tracked, based on the intended purpose(s) of the TOR. This should be consistent with the discussion on Specified Proportion to ensure that what is required as the threshold can be tracked and verified. The most common aspect of the learning activity that is currently tracked is the amount of time (actual time for teacher and student or scheduled time might be used). Also, the SEA and LEAs should discuss whether instances of learning might be a better way to connect learning practices to teachers and to student progress. This might include tracking by lesson, project, event, or learning standard. The SEA and LEAs should discuss whether the learning activities to be tracked with TOR might include a traditional class period, virtual learning, self-paced courses, labs, or even more granular learning instances that can be managed and tracked with an instructional management system. Tracking actual engaged class time is currently achievable (at least at the LEA level on a rudimentary basis) using traditional student information systems (SIS). A more nuanced tracking of instructional standards or lessons will require a learning management system (LMS).
  • Actual Instructional Time
  • Learning Activities
  • Actual Engaged Time
  • Days of Instruction
  • Learning Standards

Subject/ Course

This deals with the content/skill/knowledge area being taught which, irrespective of the grade level of the student, must be identified so that it can be aligned to the performance measure. The SEA and LEAs should discuss the ability to match LEA course codes with SEA course codes. The discussion should include the benefits of having one common set of state course codes (aligned to state standards) that is used by all LEAs and schools for course scheduling.
  • Subject/Course
  • Course/Section

Performance Measures

These are measures of student performance that can determine a student's progress/growth towards meeting standards, objectives, or grade level/course expectations. The SEA and LEAs should discuss alignment of course codes to performance measures. There should also be a dialogue about how to assess non-core subjects and other outcomes, such as progress on IEP objectives. Further discussion is needed to determine measures for the contributions of non-TOR staff such as tutors and media specialists.
  • Performance Measure
  • Summative Assessment
  • State Assessment
  • District Assessment
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